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Thailand's Most Polluted Air Is In The North


sriracha john

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Thailand's northern provinces hit by heavy smog

CHIANG MAI, March 2 (TNA) - Thailand's mountainous northern region, particularly Chiang Mai, was blanketed with thick smog on Monday from seasonal burning-off fires, with high levels of dust particles reaching health-alert levels across the region.

Chiang Mai's sky was leaden with dense haze, and the city recorded particulate levels of 195 microgrammes per cubic metre, exceeding the safety limit, but authorities had not yet announced it as an air pollution disaster area.

Air pollutants are a hazard to health, especially the respiratory system but also including the eyes and nose.

Lamphun governor Direk Konkleep met concerned provincial agencies to joined forces in preventing forest fires, after more than a thousand rai of provincial forest had been burned this year.

Forest fires have raised the level of smog and dust particles in Lamphun above the safety limit for over two weeks.

The royal Rain-making Operations Centre's upper northern provinces director Somchai Ruangsutthinaruepab said His Majesty King Bhumibol Adulyadej had expressed concern over the smog hazard and ordered the 'Beechcraft Super King Air' aircraft normally stationed at the Hua Hin Royal Rainmaking Centre to join rain making operations in the north to reduce the likelihood of forest blazes.

Super King aircraft flying at altitudes of over 20,000 feet can use innovative rainmaking techniques developed by Thailand’s monarch.

His Majesty the King in 1999 developed new technique to increase cloud density at both upper and lower levels simultaneously to increase the amount and extent of rainfall. The royal rainmaking team tried out the new technique and it proved to be a very efficient way of inducing rain. He named the new cloud-seeding technique "Super Sandwich."

Rainmaking operations have begun in Uttaradit and Phrae, Mr. Somchai said, and a plan was drafted for operations in Chiang Mai, Lamphun and Lampang and would cover Chiang Rai and Phayao.

It was expected that artificial rain would reduce the level of smog in the affected areas.

Natural Resources and Environment Minister Suvit Khunkitti was in Chiang Mai to inspect the smog situation in the north and met officials from agencies concerned to determine responses to the smog problem.

The minister said he would also report on the problem to Tuesday's Cabinet meeting.

Edited by sriracha john
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Thailand's northern provinces hit by heavy smog

CHIANG MAI, March 2 (TNA) - ...

The royal Rain-making Operations Centre's upper northern provinces director Somchai Ruangsutthinaruepab said His Majesty King Bhumibol Adulyadej had expressed concern over the smog hazard and ordered the 'Beechcraft Super King Air' aircraft normally stationed at the Hua Hin Royal Rainmaking Centre to join rain making operations in the north to reduce the likelihood of forest blazes.

Super King aircraft flying at altitudes of over 20,000 feet can use innovative rainmaking techniques developed by Thailand’s monarch.

His Majesty the King in 1999 developed new technique to increase cloud density at both upper and lower levels simultaneously to increase the amount and extent of rainfall. The royal rainmaking team tried out the new technique and it proved to be a very efficient way of inducing rain. He named the new cloud-seeding technique "Super Sandwich."

Rainmaking operations have begun in Uttaradit and Phrae, Mr. Somchai said, and a plan was drafted for operations in Chiang Mai, Lamphun and Lampang and would cover Chiang Rai and Phayao.

It was expected that artificial rain would reduce the level of smog in the affected areas...

Sad to say,

Who’ll Stop the Rain?

Weather modification is marked by 'failure to provide demonstrable

successes.'

Sharon Begley

NEWSWEEK

Updated: 1:59 PM ET Jul 26, 2008

Close pollution-belching factories around Beijing? Check. Restrict cars and trucks? Oh, yes.

Send hookers, beggars, vagrants and street hawkers packing? Done. Wring rain from clouds

before they float over Beijing National Stadium (a.k.a. the "bird's nest"), site of the opening

and closing ceremonies, as Beijing announced in January it would do? Let's just say that

rocket launchers, antiaircraft guns and a veritable armada of small planes stand ready. Too

bad that no project in the 60-year history of weather modification has managed to reliably

bring about or suppress rain on demand. And that goes for the old Soviet claim that Russian

science ensured sunny skies for every May Day parade.

On paper, the recipe for keeping raindrops away from the bird's nest is basically what China

has been doing since the late 1950s. With an estimated 30,000 rainmakers, a $100 million

budget and more hardware (like those launchers) than it has pointed at Taiwan, China has the largest weather-modification program in the world. Despite China's claims that its

cloud-seeding technology can make rain on demand, though, experts are dubious. "They've

never really evaluated their results quantitatively," says Roelof Bruintjes, a cloud physicist at

the National Center for Atmospheric Research in Boulder, Colo. "It's hard, if you've always told your sponsor that it works, to turn about and say, 'Um, we have to check'."

Beijing has a twofold plan for a blue-sky Olympics. Both rely on the standard technique of

seeding rain clouds with either the traditional silver iodide or newer hygroscopic

(water-absorbing) particles such as calcium-chloride salts. Particles of silver iodide resemble

ice crystals; supercooled water droplets in the clouds—too light to fall as rain—freeze on

these "nuclei," causing each ice crystal to grow until it is heavy enough to fall as snow or rain.

If rainmakers seed rain clouds approaching Beijing, they hope, the precip will fall well short of the Games. Alternatively, they might use smaller seeds, but more of them. If the water

droplets are dispersed among many seeds, no single nucleus will attract enough to form a

raindrop.

Contrary to myth, however, there is no scientific basis for either making clouds rain before

they reach Beijing or keeping water droplets bottled up inside a cloud. Rainmaking has been

marked by "failure to provide scientifically demonstrable successes," Michael Garstang of the

University of Virginia, and chair of a 2003 report on weather modification from the National

Academy of Sciences, told a Senate panel in 2005. The myth persists because if cloud

seeding is followed by an increase in rainfall (or, at the Olympics, no rain outs), the rainmakers claim success. But in fact an increase of even 10 to 40 percent is within the range of natural variability. The myth also persists because experiments starting in the 1990s—in South Africa, Thailand and Mexico—seemed to get statistically significant increases in rainfall using hygroscopic salts. But a new analysis is more downbeat. Although the water-absorbing particles sped up the growth of cloud droplets and therefore the formation of precip-size "hydrometeors" (you have to love the terminology in this field), the rain would have fallen eventually if the clouds had been left alone.

Rainmakers are by no means giving up, though. Beijing's best hope is new research showing

that the size and concentration of natural droplet-growing particles in a cloud are keys to

success. If there are a lot, they dominate the man-made ones; with so many nuclei to choose from, too few supercooled droplets glom onto any particular one to form a raindrop. Studies also show that larger particles make raindrops form earlier than otherwise, but the rain does not last long. That's no help in combating drought, but may be just what China needs.

And if a tropical storm heads for the Games? At an international symposium in Colorado in

April on weather modification, one inventor proposed weakening a hurricane by maneuvering a ship into the eye. Gigantic fans on deck would break up the inner wall, disrupting the storm's structure sufficiently to make it "implode." While Joe Golden of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration calls that "kooky," the basic idea isn't. From 1962 to 1983, Project Stormfury shot silver iodide just outside the eyewalls of four hurricanes, to increase

convection and thereby cause the eyewall to re-form at a larger radius. The larger a storm's

radius, the weaker its winds. Although at first it seemed to work, scientists now think it was a coincidence that the storms' winds weakened after the seeding. But there are better schemes in the works, says Golden, including shooting heat-absorbing carbon (soot) into the eyewall to change the distribution of heat. The idea won't leave the drawing boards in time to help anyone in the path of Atlantic hurricanes this season, which is already way ahead of schedule in the number of storms. But the Department of Homeland Security, which includes FEMA, was interested enough to cosponsor a workshop this past February on hurricane control. The dream of playing weather god lives, but Olympic fans should still pack an umbrella.

URL: http://www.newsweek.com/id/149000

© 2008

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Well here we are bunkered up in the house with the windows shut and aircon again. March 2007 revisited.

I'm looking at the front page of the Nation web site today. There is a picture of a fire engine in Chiang Rai (presumably with its engine running belching fumes) spraying water up in the air to help "control the smog". Apparently they are parked all over CR performing the same futile ritual. This must go down with motorbike riders holding their hands over their mouths, as another monument to silliness.

I know I'm only dreaming but ... close your eyes and think of that famous helicopter attack sequence in "Apocalypse Now", but on a smaller scale. Music optional. Thai troops in helicopters landing beside large fires and rounding up the silly goats who are lighting them, and bringing them in a for a chat and a couple of days in the cells. I wonder how many less fires would get lit after that strategy got publicised?

Nope, wakey wakey! Let's just talk about enforcement instead. Lots more fires. More sick kids and oldies.

The horror, the horror

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Well here we are bunkered up in the house with the windows shut and aircon again. March 2007 revisited.

Also don't forget the aluminum hats.

Come on, it's a very clear day today (and yesterday) for the time of the year. Nothing at all like 2007. Keep it real pls..

however:

I know I'm only dreaming but ... close your eyes and think of that famous helicopter attack sequence in "Apocalypse Now", but on a smaller scale. Music optional. Thai troops in helicopters landing beside large fires and rounding up the silly goats who are lighting them, and bringing them in a for a chat and a couple of days in the cells. I wonder how many less fires would get lit after that strategy got publicised?

This I'd LOVE to see. It would still be hazy this month because they couldn't do the same across the border, but at least they wouldn't add to the problem.

Edited by WinnieTheKhwai
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Smog Situation in North Worsens

The smog situation in Chiang Mai and Chiang Rai continues as potentially harmful dust in the air increases.

The smog situation in Chiang Rai is critical. The sky and several roads are currently blanketed with dense smog, provincial health officials said.

The amount of small dust particles has increased sharply, to 249.5 micrograms per cubic metre, significantly higher than the safety standard of 120 micrograms per cubic metre, and it's showing no sign of letting up.

The smog has lasted more than a week in Chiang Rai and it's beginning to affect the health of residents, particularly children and the elderly, who are prone to respiratory ailments.

In Chiang Mai province, local government officials are collaborating with traffic police to examine toxic fumes on Chotana Road, which has a lot of inbound traffic to Chiangmai City.

They aim to reduce the air pollution from tail pipes, after smog has blanketed the city for more than a week and the amount of dust particles has risen to well above the safety standard.

- TOC / 2009-03-03

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Want to do something constructive? Lots of different sorts of things can be done. Here are a few ideas and contacts to get you started:

1. Report fires when you see them. (This will usually require learning enough Thai to do it and knowing how to read a map or describe a location, but English speakers are normally available during office hours). The numbers are: 199 or 053409345.

2. Talk to neighbors about the problem, expressing concern for good health and showing alternatives. Excellent leaflets are available available from the Urban Studies Section of the Social Research Institute, Chiang Mai University.

3. Follow recycling techniques. Promote regular garbage pickup, which is not yet consistently available outside of Chiang Mai City. Contact scavengers regarding recyclable material which is profitable. (Quite a lot is.) There is also promotional material at the Social Research Institute with contact information for entrepreneurial firms who are manufacturing products from recycled materials:

Urban Studies Section

Social Research Instititute

Chiang Mai University

053.94.2564

www.sri.cmu.ac.th

Email: [email protected]

This office is located on the right-hand side of the road which is the first major left-hand turn through the CMU entrance on the Canal Road. There is a sign about 150M down the road on the right. Park and go to the 2d floor office.

4. Be persistent in writing letters to officials at province level, especially the governor and the deputy governor, and contacting national as well as local news media. Don't forget to contact TAT where some tourism officials seem to be in denial about pollution. There is a TAT official in Chiang Mai. Persistently ask municipal and police officials why they don't enforce existing pollution laws. Join and support the efforts of the UDIF (Urban Development Institute Foundation). The web site is www.udif.or.th. Email is [email protected]. Phone: 053.27.4817. Visit UDIF most any Saturday. It is located in the very large building directly west of and across the road of the Governor's residence on the SW corner of Taepae Bridge. Lots of parking off Taepae Road.

Thanks, Mapguy, for giving everyone something to do besides moan on TV — at least some of us can now go moan to the right people. It's nice to not feel completely useless.

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Today, at Carfour seating area, I was reading a chapter on meteorology from Bill Bryson's A Short History of Nearly Everything, where he describes how our carbon emissions could soon reach a tipping point leading to the destruction of much plant life. But not to worry, Bryson said cheerily, our earth is resilient and would recover — in a mere sixty thousand years. As I read this, I heard the following blurb from the store PA system:

Chripy female voice with an American international school accent:

"Regardless of global warming, you can stay cool with our special price on air conditioners! Come visit the cool air fair".

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Even though the past two days have been relatively good, my kids and wife packed up and headed down south for the next week or so. The young ones were affected much more and we figured that the extra costs are worth their safety (plus - they're not yet in school so there's no real reason to wait until it gets worse).

Thanks to the others on this forum who provided some great suggestions for places in Hua Hin. You were brilliant in scouting out the area beforehand since it seems that the bad air trend is likely to occur every year.

For those of us still in Chiang Mai, let's hope that the weather continues to improve.

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"Regardless of global warming, you can stay cool with our special price on air conditioners! Come visit the cool air fair".

I wonder how many of our pollution crusaders are home with no air-con, working on lessening their carbon footprint? :o

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"Regardless of global warming, you can stay cool with our special price on air conditioners! Come visit the cool air fair".

I wonder how many of our pollution crusaders are home with no air-con, working on lessening their carbon footprint? :o

The air-cons are off, 2 fans are on, windows are all closed, got a lot of potted plants placed in high sun / heat areas around the house(for shade), and a stand-alone filter is on. (I've used an amp-clamp to check the amp draw on each of the electrical circuits thank you! And yourself UG?)

Edited by scotbeve
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Or are you too cheap for aircon? :D Books like aircon too youknow. Never met a book that liked things balmy and humid. :o

By the way, in an hour or two I will be posting an article from the WinnieTheKhwai press agency and the header will likely be 'Dust situation in the North IMPROVES', and beat The Nation on accuracy and truthiness. But I'll wait for today's figures to be published so it will be fact based. Non-fact based observations yesterday and last night already show me that things are improving. Of course we'll have ups and downs this month, but again, that's why March is a shitty month weather-wise.

Edited by WinnieTheKhwai
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Or are you too cheap for aircon?

If we don't need air-con, why have it? It would raise business costs and probably book prices with little difference in comfort levels for the customer. If it's not broke, don't fix it.

Unfortunately, I think folks with 2 story homes or uninsulated roofs or hung ceilings or no trees around the home or any / all combinations of the former, will need some air-cond sometimes. Unfortunately, my house is 2 story and we need to turn on the air-cond during the hot season 3 - 4 hours each night (early ish)

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Cabinet orders authorities to coordinate Northern anti-smog response

BANGKOK, March 3 (TNA) - The Cabinet has ordered Thaland’s concerned ministries and agencies to coordinate their responses against the smog enveloping many parts of the northern provinces, particularly Chiang Mai, which was blanketed with thick smog from seasonal burn-off fires, with high levels of dust particles reaching health-alert levels across the region.

Deputy government spokesman Suparak Kuanha said the cabinet acknowledged measures to counteract the continuing dense smog and ordered six ministries-- interior, defence, transport, agriculture and cooperatives, and public health -- to integrate their anti-smog activities.

The government instructed the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment's Pollution Control Department to monitor air quality and report the levels of suspended particulate matter to other agencies to prepare for their response measures, Mr. Suparak said.

Meanwhile, the Cabinet assigned agencies under the Ministry of Interior to set up operations centres to work around the clock and firefighting teams to be on 24-hour standby in case of forest fire emergency.

The local administrative offices were also ordered to strictly monitor burning activities by villagers in open areas.

Speaking after the weekly Cabinet meeting, the spokesman said the Ministry of Defence would ask the Air Force and Army for support equipment to control and extinguish forest fires and other burning areas.

The Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives will provide heavy agricultural machinery to help farmers prepare their farmlands in order to avoid burning activities and the royal Rain-making Operations Centre to operate artificial rain in the north to reduce the likelihood of forest blazes during summer.

As for health risks from the thick haze air pollution, the Ministry of Public Health will inform local residents how to protect themselves from the smog and provide medical equipment to treat smog-related illness.

The Meteorological Department would continue to give information on the smog periodically to public, he said.

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HM the King assigns Super King Air to alleviate northern smog problem

His Majesty the King has assigned his own Super King's Air plane to be used in Royal Rain-Making missions to remedy the smog situation in the northern region.

Director of the Northern Royal Rain-Making Command Center Somchai Ruangsuthinaruepap disclosed today that persistent air pollution conditions in the region, including smog and smoke, had been conveyed to His Majesty the King, incurring grave concern from His Majesty.

In response to the situation His Majesty has granted his own Super King's Air plane to the center to aid in its rain making operations.

The royal plane will join 2 already used aircraft of the center in their missions and will take advantage of its larger size and advanced technology to fly at a higher altitude, thus bringing about more efficient and prompt rainfalls.

The Super King's Air plane is usually in operation at the Hua Hin Command Center but will now remain in the use of the northern rain-making command center until the air pollution situation is alleviated.

- ThaiNews / 2009-03-04

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"Regardless of global warming, you can stay cool with our special price on air conditioners! Come visit the cool air fair".

I wonder how many of our pollution crusaders are home with no air-con, working on lessening their carbon footprint? :o

Please, UG, take a break! Oy! For lack of anything useful to say, you start laying on an argumentum ad hominem attack alluding that "pollution crusaders" are somehow hypocrites?!

Glad you don't need an air con in the shops. Now, why don't you quit offering plastic bags and putting plastic wrap (petroleum products) on your books?! :D to you, too!

Edited by Mapguy
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"Regardless of global warming, you can stay cool with our special price on air conditioners! Come visit the cool air fair".

I wonder how many of our pollution crusaders are home with no air-con, working on lessening their carbon footprint? :o

Please, UG, take a break! Oy! For lack of anything useful to say, you start laying on an argumentum ad hominem attack alluding that "pollution crusaders" are somehow hypocrites?!

Now I'm really wondering! :D

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I wonder how many of our pollution crusaders are home with no air-con, working on lessening their carbon footprint? :o

I side with you on having no air-con, and with those you call 'pollution crusaders' on taking seriously the poor air quality we often have here in March and April.

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I wonder how many of our pollution crusaders are home with no air-con, working on lessening their carbon footprint? :D

I side with you on having no air-con, and with those you call 'pollution crusaders' on taking seriously the poor air quality we often have here in March and April.

Pretty much everyone takes the poor air quality in March and April seriously. :o

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I wonder how many of our pollution crusaders are home with no air-con, working on lessening their carbon footprint? :D

I side with you on having no air-con, and with those you call 'pollution crusaders' on taking seriously the poor air quality we often have here in March and April.

Pretty much everyone takes the poor air quality in March and April seriously. :o

In the case of this year, I'd say that folks are taking February seriously...

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Yes, we all agree that March and April is like hel_l's Kitchen here but it started early as one can see VISIBLY

post-54111-1236337567_thumb.jpg Nice time of year isn't it? This is Nov. 2008

post-54111-1236337246_thumb.jpg And same shot again in 18 Feb. 2009 - BTW the mountains are only 1.93 km from camera viewpoint

post-54111-1236337394_thumb.jpg DAft microlite pilot on 3 Mar. 09

Edited by scotbeve
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Yes, we all agree that March and April is like hel_l's Kitchen here but it started early as one can see VISIBLY

Presumably this is a case of, "sarcasm is the lowest .." because your picture looks wonderful.

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What gets me is every year they blame China or Burma or indonesia. And I sit here and see the fires on the horizon and definately in Thailand.

Its people clearing Land for agriculture, Its not my business , People need to eat right. But I Do suspect its Land cleared illegally. Instead of telling the people to put the fires out they send planes in an attempt to make rain. Perhaps they could plough instead of burning. Don't get me wrong I love it here, but I just don't get . Smoke and Mirrors and Airplanes :o

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What gets me is every year they blame China or Burma or indonesia. And I sit here and see the fires on the horizon and definately in Thailand.

Its people clearing Land for agriculture, Its not my business , People need to eat right. But I Do suspect its Land cleared illegally. Instead of telling the people to put the fires out they send planes in an attempt to make rain. Perhaps they could plough instead of burning. Don't get me wrong I love it here, but I just don't get . Smoke and Mirrors and Airplanes :o

Did my (***&&^&**%%##FGFDF ing) 15 day visa run to Mae Sai last week and saw no less than 20 forest fires going and returning to Chiang Mai on the Rt. 118 (to Chiang Rai) in various hilltribe areas as well as "low lander" areas. 3 of which were vast areas of "half-way-up-the-hill" farming areas. Hmmmm..... let's see.... "agricultural land" given by very higher- ups and destroyed (I've watched this for years and am ready to be deported).... My heart goes out to the "real" Thai people for this atrocity. Jubby, I've been saying this for over 20 years in the agricultural sector..... I'm very tired....

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UG once wrote:

Pretty much everyone takes the poor air quality in March and April seriously. :o

Indeed they do! Indeed they do!

I have been doing further research regarding the impact on health, in particular of high concentrations of PM<2.5 fine particulate matter which makes up the bulk of Chiang Mai seasonal haze.

Firstly, a fact sheet from the World Health Organization (attached).

Secondly, a quote (below) from a proposal of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to revise standards given increased research showing that short (24-hour) exposure to PM<2.5 has more serious health consequences than heretofore thought.

[There is]stronger body of evidence linking 24-hour PM2.5 concentrations with serious morbidity and mortality effects, including: premature mortality, aggravation of respiratory and cardiovascular disease (as indicated by increased hospital admissions and emergency department visits), changes in lung function and increased respiratory symptoms, as well as new evidence for more subtle indicators of cardiovascular health.

Accordingly, change in the health standards for PM<2.5 and its relationship to the AQI (Air Quality Index) are in process in the USA. This is consistent with action being taken in Europe. PM<2.5 fine particle pollution is not even measured in Thailand, which relies upon PM<10 measurement, and seldom measured in Asian countries (Singapore and Bangladesh are the only two which come to mind).

The AQI and component standards for Thailand (same as in the USA) are described here: http://www.pcd.go.th/info_serv/en_air_aqi.htm. There is information here in English as well as in Thai.

And I am attaching an illustration of particles so that people can better understand their relationship. the smaller the particle, the deeper it goes into the lungs.

HOW_PM_Harms_Health__WHO_.pdf

PM_Particle_Size_Illistration.pdf

Edited by Mapguy
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Mapguy,

Once again thank you for the 2 pdf files above. Especially the illustrated one - good depiction! I showed it to my missus and she better understood the problem (also had an illustration / size comparison of the alveolar areas - zoomed in - on a medical site). No, I'm not a doctor, I'm an engineer. And you can't fit a 2.5micron piece of c_ap in the end regions of these areas - full stop. She took that in and simply said, " I think I'll stay in more". I said, "What about the dust masks?" (yes, I know, not very effective against the small c_ap...). And silence persued... my saduak, hy jai yak, etc. were our past arguments.... Still waiting to see more people wearing masks tho'!!!!

Second point is the daily AQI figures - I'm a bit baffled.... see yesterdays here: http://www.pcd.go.th/AirQuality/Regional/default.cfm and check the numbers on this following site for "the standard" : http://www.pcd.go.th/info_serv/en_air_aqi.htm Maybe I'm a total idiot at math and estimated it incorrectly - but it doesn't add up right - note: it is not linear... here goes, if one looks at the AQI and PM10 numbers given on the sites, at first glance the AQI numbers don't seem "too bad". Correct me if I'm wrong, but the PCD is using the US EPA standards. I would of thought after the disastrous policies changes the last administration plowed through the bill voting concerning the EPA, that this standard would be one of the worst (I'm an American - BTW) standards to follow. Are these scales correct? Or, is this a whitewash from the US EPA that the Thai PCD has conveniently borrowed?

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